Comparative European Experiences with Performance Management
In order to conduct a comparative analysis of performance management systems in European countries, four countries were selected in addition to Croatia; Great Britain (in which England, Scotland and Wales are examined separately), Austria, Italy and Denmark. The countries belong to different administrative traditions (East-European, Anglo-Saxon, German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian), offering insights into the functioning of the performance management system in each cluster of states. Five elements were analysed: how performance is measured; whether and for what purposes the performance information is being used; the time period in which the performance management system is instituted and when any major changes have occurred; the body responsible for performance management system coordination and implementation; and some real time effects of the performance management system. In addition to describing their own performance management systems, these countries are also categorized according to the Bouckaert and Halligan (2008) categorization. The analysis shows that Great Britain and Denmark have highly developed performance management systems that are evolving towards performance governance, while Austria, Italy and Croatia, although they have instituted performance management systems, their implementation still shows many flows. The predictions seem to indicate
that the performance management system in these countries will have to adapt to an existing legalistic tradition in which the procedure is equally important as the output and outcome. These comparative insights are being used to formulate lessons for the improvement of the Croatian system of performance management
being developed since 2009, but still with many problems in its implementation.